Today, patients undergoing routine treatments, such as cancer treatment, organ transplantation and hip and knee replacements, are routinely given antibiotics to prevent infection during therapy. The frequency of antibiotic resistant infections is increasing, meaning that there are more and more deaths from antibiotic resistant bacteria. Sepsis is a common cause of death in the UK with over 37,000 deaths each year. More people die from sepsis than lung cancer (35,000) and bowel cancer (16,000) and many of these sepsis deaths are due to untreatable antibiotic resistant infections. If there were no new antibiotics, then any infections become untreatable. The failure to develop new antibiotics is of great concern. Antibiotic resistance is life-threatening, with the young and old being most at risk of resistant infections. This is because these two groups have low immunity, making them more susceptible to infection.